The most popular modern commercial enterprise logi

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Modern commercial enterprise logistics commodity packaging

section 2 commodity packaging container

packaging container is the product of the combination of packaging materials and modeling. Corrugated boxes, wooden cases, pallet collective packaging, containers and plastic turnover boxes are mainly included in the modern logistics packaging. They have their own characteristics in meeting the packaging functions of commodity transportation, and must be reasonably selected according to actual needs

I. corrugated box

corrugated box is a packaging container made of corrugated board with hollow structure through forming process. Corrugated cartons use various types of cardboard, including single corrugated, double corrugated and three corrugated, as packaging materials, which reduces the amount of molasses. The weight of goods loaded in large cartons can reach 3000 kg. Corrugated boxes are widely used, including almost all daily consumer goods, including fruits, vegetables, processed food, knitted cotton fabrics, glass ceramics, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other daily necessities, as well as bicycles, household appliances, exquisite furniture, etc

from the development of corrugated boxes in various countries, it has replaced or is replacing the traditional wooden box packaging. According to relevant literature statistics, the output value of corrugated cardboard holds the first place in the whole packaging materials, accounting for more than%. Some foreign literatures point out that it is estimated that corrugated boxes will not be replaced by other packaging materials for at least 30 years

the following is about the functions of transport packaging to examine the advantages and disadvantages of corrugated boxes: from the perspective of protection functions, the design of corrugated boxes can make them have sufficient strength; Elastic, with good shockproof and buffer function; It has good sealing property, can prevent dust and keep the product clean

from the function of convenient circulation, corrugated boxes are easy to realize containerization; It is light in weight and convenient for loading, unloading and stacking; Empty containers can be disassembled and stacked, and the volume can be greatly reduced, which is convenient for empty container storage; The corrugated box surface is bright and clean, the printing is beautiful, the mark is obvious, and it is easy to convey information

from the perspective of the function of reducing circulation costs, cartons consume less resources than wood foil, and their prices are naturally lower than wood boxes; Its volume and weight are smaller and lighter than wooden cases, and the material performance is conducive to saving freight. After waste recycling, it can also be made into paper, which can save resources

of course, corrugated boxes also have some shortcomings, mainly including insufficient compressive strength and poor waterproof performance, which will affect the realization of the basic function of corrugated boxes - protection function. In recent years, due to the improvement of compressive strength in carton design and the change of logistics environment, such as the reduction of loading and unloading times, the shortening of storage time, the reduction of stacking height, the application of automated three-dimensional warehouse, and the protection of cartons by container and pallet packaging, these two performance requirements for cartons have also been reduced, making up for the deficiencies of cartons, so that they can be applied in a wider range

II. Wooden case

wooden case is a kind of traditional packaging container. Although in many cases, it has been gradually replaced by corrugated box, but compared with corrugated box, wooden case still has its superiority and irreplaceable in some aspects. In addition, at present, wooden case is still more suitable for the current situation of packaging production and commodity circulation in China, so wooden case still occupies a place in the whole transportation packaging container. There are three kinds of common wooden boxes: wooden box, frame board box and frame box

(I) wooden crate

wooden crate is made of wooden slats and nails. It is a small transport packaging container

the wooden box has the following characteristics in meeting various functions of transportation and packaging:

from the perspective of protection function, the wooden box has high puncture resistance and compressive strength, can better resist foreign object collision and bear high stacking load, especially in the case of moisture, it will not deform due to strength decline, resulting in stacking accidents. However, the wooden box has small elasticity and poor cushioning and anti-seismic performance. It is not easy to dry after being affected by moisture. There are pores left in the joints, which makes it difficult to seal the waiting point. If other additional protective measures are not added, the interior products are easy to be damaged or deteriorated in case of large impact, moisture and rain, or dust and insects

from the function of convenient circulation, the wooden box is easy to be made with local materials and processed on site. It does not need too complex processing equipment and is easy to make. Therefore, for those special products with small batch, small volume and large weight, the wooden box is easy to make appropriate packaging and has great advantages. However, due to the heavy weight, large volume and large area occupied by empty box storage, the use, storage and transportation of wooden boxes are inconvenient. For example, loading, unloading and stacking are more laborious than those of cartons. At the same time, the surface of general wooden boxes is rough, and the characters and signs are easy to be blurred. However, due to the low level of mechanization in making koji, the low production efficiency and the high price of wood raw materials in China, the cost of wooden crates is high. As the weight and volume of the wooden box are large, the freight will increase, and its empty box storage and recovery transportation will be large, resulting in an increase in the circulation cost of the wooden box

wooden crate can be made into a kind of sparse wooden crate, which is called lattice wooden crate. The utility model can be ventilated, reduce the amount of wood, reduce the cost, reduce the weight and reduce the circulation cost. The utility model is suitable for being used as a transport packaging container for fresh and living commodities and commodities that do not need dust prevention

(II) frame board box

frame board box is a small packaging container made of wood and man-made board, and then assembled by nailing. From the perspective of the frame board box as a whole, its frame is wood, while the box surface is usually a whole piece of plywood, fiberboard and paperboard

the frame plate box is a wooden frame structure with large bearing capacity and many stacking layers; The box surface is made of a whole artificial board, with strong dust and moisture resistance; When the box size is the same, it is lighter than the wooden box and has a frame structure for easy handling; The artificial board is smoother than the wood board, and the printing mark is clear; The use of plywood, fiberboard and paperboard is conducive to saving wood resources. However, the anti puncture strength of the frame plate box is lower than that of the wooden box, and the box should not be too large; The frame is outside the box to increase its volume; The box surface is easy to be damaged, which reduces the recycling rate; It is also difficult to process when adding reinforced wood brace

(III) frame box

frame box is a large-scale packaging container covered with plates, which is composed of strips of wood with a certain section, and then added outside the frame as required. Generally, the box body is composed of six frames, and the assembly method is divided into nail 7 Function of software authority hierarchical processing: in order to ensure the safety of software and data, nails are used for light goods and bolts are used for heavy goods

the frame has strong structure, high strength and strong protection ability. It is suitable for packaging heavy materials or fragile and delicate electronic equipment; Able to bear large accumulation load; It can carry large materials and equipment from more than 1000 kg to less than 15000 kg. However, the design and manufacture of the frame box is complicated; Heavy self weight makes it difficult to carry large frame boxes

III. pallet

pallet collective packaging is a packaging form that gathers several pieces of goods together and stacks them on the carrier pallet to form a large cargo. Pallet packaging is a kind of packaging produced to adapt to the mechanization of loading, unloading and handling operations

pallet integrated packaging is an important type of integrated packaging. It is different from ordinary transport packaging in that it is in a state that can be transferred into motion at any time, making static goods into dynamic goods. From different perspectives, pallet collective packaging is not only a packaging method, but also a means of transport and a packaging container. Seen from the collection of small packaging units, it is a packaging method; It is a means of transportation from the point of view that it is suitable for transportation; From its protection function for goods, it is also a kind of packaging container

IV. container

container is a large iron packing box with good sealing performance. The most advanced transportation mode can be realized by using containers, that is, "door-to-door" transportation, from the shipper's warehouse door to the consignee's door

container is a large-scale collective packaging, which is not only a means of transportation, but also a packaging method and container. In adapting to modern logistics, it has more advantages than pallet packaging. For details, see section 4 of Chapter 3, container transportation

v. plastic turnover box

turnover box is a transportation package suitable for short distance transportation and can be reused for a long time. At the same time, it is an open transportation package without binding and users do not have to open the package. Turnover

boxes can be used for all factory sales linked and fast in and fast out commodities, such as beverages, meat, bean products, milk, cakes, eggs and other foods

in the past, wooden boxes were used as turnover boxes. In recent years, a new type of plastic turnover box has emerged, gradually replacing wooden boxes. Plastic turnover boxes have played a great role in protecting commodities, saving costs and improving service quality, which has gradually expanded the application scope of turnover boxes

the plastic turnover box has the advantages of light weight, small volume, low cost and convenient handling; The safety degree can be improved, the bottom of the box will not fall off, and the breakage rate of the glass bottle will be greatly reduced; The use of plastic boxes can save valuable wood resources. However, the plastic turnover box has large one-time investment and high cost; Empty containers shall occupy transportation and storage expenses; Poor sealing, which is harmful to health in some cases; The lack of signs has brought some difficulties to the logistics management

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